|Mesmer practising animal magnetism|
Before the advent of anaesthesia, surgery was a terrifying prospect. Many approached surgery as if they are facing execution and many suffered pain, hemorrage, shock, infection and death, due to inappropriate assessment, lack of proper agents or equipments.The pre anaesthetic era witnessed the application of physical means and herbal remedies for pain relief eg: local application of cold water, ice or pressure. Plants and extracts,Coca leaves chewed and saliva dripped into injured areas or open wounds -Inca Shamans, Alcohol with opium or hemp –“soporific sponge" (mentioned around 1200 by Nicholas of Salerno ) , Hypnosis (Its eponymous originator was Anton Mesmer (1734-1815)). etc. Amputations were performed by giving alcohol and patients were made intoxicated (Apuleius, a 5th century compiler) or the legs were frozen by applying ice(Refrigeration anaesthesia by Marco AvrelioSeverino). Egyptian surgeons apparently half-asphyxiated children undergoing circumcision by first almost strangling them. This practice sounds almost as barbarous as the operation itself.
|Crawford Williamson Long|
The era of surgical anaesthesia unveils, William Thomas Green Morton (1819-1868). discovered the quality of ether that it can produce surgical anaesthesia without profound respiratory or circulatory depression. He found that a slow rate of induction allowed high margin of safety for ether. He was received an invitation to give a public demonstration at Massachussets General Hospital on friday 16 oct 1846. The patient was Edward Gilbert Abbot and the surgeon was John Collins Warren.
|William Thomas Green Morton|
WILLIAM T. G. MORTON
Inventor and Revealer of Anaesthetic Inhalation
Before Whom, in All Time, Surgery Was Agony
By Whom Pain in Surgery was Averted and Annulled
SinceWhom Science Has Control of Pain
|James young simpson|
- Description of stages of anaesthesia based on patient's responsiveness
- Developed ether inhalers, and an ether vapouriser which is thermocompensated.
- Development of agent specific chloroform vapouriser
- Described the minimum anaesthetic concentration to prevent movement which led to the future discovery of MAC
- Published books and journals on chloroform and ether
- Conducted epidemiological surveys and proved that cholera is transmitted by water.
The other Inhalation Anaesthesia landmarks include
- Introduction of first anaesthesia machine in 1917 by Henry Boyle
- CO2 absorption canister in 1924 by Rudolf Waters
- Endotracheal intubation in 1920 by Ivan Magill.
- Introducton of halothane in 1950
- Karl Koller( 1857-1944) an ophthalmologist from vienna introduced cocaine for topical ophthalmic anaesthesia
- William Halstead, described nerve blocks of face and arm 1886,
- Description of spinal anaesthesia by Leonard Corning. He coined the term spinal anaesthesia. He used cocaine into the spinal canal
- August Bier, further research on spinal anesthesia in 1898.
- Virginia Apgar promotes Regional analgesia in childbirth 1930.
- Arthur Barker hyperbaric spinal anaesthesia by addition of glucose 1935
- August Bier, intravenous regional anaesthesia in 1908
- Martinez Curbelo from cuba continuous epidural anaesthesia 1949
- 1903 Barbitone synthesis by Fischer, Berlin, Nobel Prize.
- 1932 Evipan used IV by Weese Schraff, & Rheinoff.
- 1934 Lundy, Mayo Clinic, used Sodium Pentothal.
- 1942 Curare first used clinically by Griffith and Enid johnson in Montreal
- 1857 Claude Bernard published that curare blocked the NMJ.
- 1940 Bennett used curare to modify seizures induced by metrozol.
- Starts from 1980
- Standards for Basic Anesthetic Monitoring ASA, House of Delegates 10/21/1986.
- Anesthesia Patient Safety Foundation 1984.
- International anaesthesia research society 1922 by mcMechaan
- BJA 1923
- Association of anaesthetists of great britain and ireland 1932.
2). Sykes: Essays on the First Hundred Years of Anaesthesia. Robert E. Kreiger Publishing Co. 1972.
Wolfe & Menczer: I Awaken to Glory. Boston Medical Library, 1994.
3) An article on Anesthesiology yesterday, today and tomorrow by Mr.Adolph H. Giesecke MD.UTX Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas T
4) Wylie and Churchil Davidson Practise of Anesthesia. 7th edition.; Pp 01-15
5) Images :